The industry is responsible for almost one-third of all greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Of these, over 80% are from energy use in industry, and about another 20% are from industrial processes in cement production or chemical processes such as ammonia. The industry is thus considered one of the most difficult sectors to decarbonize. Nevertheless, there are various approaches to reducing emissions here.

Energy-related emissions can be reduced in particular by using more energy-efficient technology, optimizing processes, and using waste heat. Renewable energies can also be used to generate process heat.

In the past, we have evaluated various projects for the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) with regard to measures to increase energy efficiency, including in Thailand, Iran, Indonesia, Egypt, and northern Macedonia.

Reducing process-related emissions is more difficult; possible solutions include using green hydrogen in particular. However, the challenges are not only technical but also geopolitical.

In our study Fair Green Hydrogen – Opportunity or Chimera in Morocco, Niger and Senegal? we investigated by way of example whether and to what extent these three states are prepared to develop a hydrogen economy for export. The focus was not only on the climate-neutral production of green hydrogen but also on social sustainability aspects. The category scheme we developed can serve as a basis for fair green hydrogen production projects that benefit both importers and exporters alike.